Erectile Dysfunction or ED becomes more common with increase of age in men. However, it is not necessary to take it as a normal part of aging. At times, certain lifestyle habits can have an effect on erection,
- A strong link exists between smoking and ED through a process that is known as atherosclerosis. This is process of formation o fat on the walls of the arteries. If you smoke for a prolonged period of time, you put a pressure on the arteries. Since they become more clogged, the blood flow is restricted to the areas that need the blood.
- Even a miniscule amount of alcohol can have a damaging effect on the nervous system of the body. The signals from the brain to the blood vessels are restricted. Therefore, you will experience a decrease sexual desire. Even if you are able to manage an erection, it will not last for long as alcohol keeps the blood vessels wide making the blood in the penis to drain out. As per Canadian Health and Care Mall heavy drinking can also damage the nerves of the penis causing impotence.
- Consuming illegal drugs can have various long term health problems that are related to ED, like mental health problems, heart problems, and irregular blood pressure. Amphetamines restrict the flow of blood and direct the blood flow away from the pelvic region and to the muscles. Drugs like depressants can also cause a change in blood pressure leading to a loss of libido.
- Stress affects the circulatory system and restricts the flow of blood to the penis. This is because the body releases adrenaline and cortisol into the bloodstream which causes a constriction of the blood vessels. High blood pressure caused by stress can damage the lining of the arteries and thus, restrict the flow of blood. Stress can also cause depression which might change the biochemistry of the body and reduce libido. Thus, you will have to struggle in order to maintain erection.
- According to Canadian Health and Care Mall obesity has direct connection with the formation of fatty deposits in the walls of the arterial system. The reduction in the blood flow is first felt by cavernous artery. This is the artery that supplies the penis with blood. Fatty tissue produces aromatase that transforms testosterone to estrogen and thus, the testosterone production decreases. This, in turn, can have a direct effect on the sexual health of a man.
Factors Responsible for Proper Erection
- Right stimulation
- Adequately functioning nervous system
- And proper supply of blood
Ways to Improve Erection
- You need to follow a diet. Foods that are not good for the heart also leads to an obstruction in blood flow to the penis.
- Avoid having rough sex as it may lead to penile injuries. These injuries might sometimes lead to a dangerous impact causing erectile dysfunction.
- You should exercise on a regular basis as jogging, running, and stretching are effective in preventing erectile dysfunction. However, avoid heavy workouts that put pressure on perineum which obstructs the blood flow to the penis.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify how extreme anticoagulation intensity contributes to important outcomes. We found that critically high anticoagulation intensity contributed significant numbers of hemorrhages to the population, explaining 25.6% and 1.9%, respectively, of all serious events in the anticoagulated and entire elderly populations. This means that eradicating INRs of > 3 would avoid one of every four serious anticoagulation-associated hemorrhages. We also found that critically low anticoagulation intensity was responsible for 11.1% and 1.1%, respectively, of all serious thromboembolic events in the anticoagulated and entire elderly populations. This means that eradicating subtherapeutic INRs would avoid 1 of every 10 anticoagulation-associated thromboemboli. Increased patient education and the use of technologies that have been shown to significantly improved anticoagulation control should show important benefits to the health of the population. Although achieving therapeutic INRs 100% of the time is impossible, our results quantify the maximal benefit of improving anticoagulation control in a population.
We believe that our estimates for the population burden of extreme anticoagulation intensity are valid and meaningful. First, we used a population-based study to estimate each component of PAR, resulting in PAR estimates that are precise and not biased from sampling. Second, PAR estimates are biased by risk persistence and confounding. The term risk persistence refers to the presence of an increased event probability even after the removal of a risk factor. This does not occur with extreme anticoagulation intensity. The association between extreme INRs and events is likely causal and not completely explained by confounders.
During the study period, the study area (Appendix A) included 188,740 seniors. After excluding time following incident events, these people contributed a total of 183,570 years of observation for hemorrhagic events and 185,142 years of observation for thromboembolic events. During the study period, 10,020 people (5.3%) were prescribed an OAC, totaling 6,422 years of exposure time (3.5% of all population observation time). People who had received anticoagulation therapy had an average age of 77 years, and 50% were men. They spent 26.7% of the time with an INR of 3.
Table 1 describes hemorrhagic events. Control patients were admitted to the hospital for hemorrhagic events at a rate of 1.8% per year (95% CI, 1.7 to 1.8). Hemorrhagic risk was significantly higher in people receiving therapy with OACs (4.0% per year [95% CI, 3.6 to 4.6]; relative risk [RR], 2.3 [95% CI, 2.0 to 2.6]). Hemorrhagic rates during monitoring periods for people who had undergone anticoagulation therapy were the same as those for the control population. During monitoring, people who had undergone anticoagulation therapy had an overall hemorrhagic rate of 6.0% per year (RR vs control patients, 3.4; 95% CI, 3.0 to 3.9). The hemorrhagic risk was strongly associated with anticoagulation intensity. Bleeding rates increased significantly when INRs exceeded 3 (RR vs INR < 3, 19.4; 95% CI, 14.4 to 26.0). Overall, we saw similar patterns for each of the hemorrhagic subtypes.
The study occurred between September 1, 1999, and September 1, 2000, in eastern Ontario (Appendix A). Costs of all hospitalizations, physician visits, and laboratory tests were covered by the publicly administered health-care system. To estimate the elderly population in the study area at the midpoint (ie, February 1, 2000), we used exponential interpolation between census counts in 1996 and 2001 for people > 65 years of age in the census divisions that comprise the study area.
Databases Used in the Study
This study used five administrative databases. The Ontario Drug Benefit Database (ODBD) records the medication, amount dispensed, and date of all prescriptions for Ontarians > 65 years of age. Because the ODBD does not capture all data for people < 65 years of age, we limited our study to the elderly. The Registered Persons Database (RPD) records the location, sex, date of birth, date of death, and date of last known contact with the Ontario health-care system. The Database of Laboratory Tests in Eastern Ontario (DOLTEON) contains the date and result of 98.5% of INRs from both private and hospital-based medical laboratories in eastern Ontario between September 1, 1999, and September 1, 2000. The Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) records all admissions to Ontario hospitals and documents diagnoses in a standardized fashion. Finally, the Ontario Myocardial Infarction Database records data on all people admitted to the hospital for acute myocardial infarction. All databases are anonymous and were linked by common, scrambled, unique patient identifiers. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Board of the Sunnybrook, Women’s College Hospital and Canadian Health&Care Mall.
On average, patients receiving long-term anticoagulation therapy are in the therapeutic range 55% of the time. The risk of hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events in anticoagulated patients is strongly associated with anticoagulation control. Improved anticoagulation control, possibly with interventions including anticoagulation clinics and patient selfmonitoring, should be a therapeutic goal for all anticoagulated patients.